Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the endocrine system associated with a lack of insulin in the body.
As a result, the blood glucose content increases, which leads to metabolic disturbances and gradual damage to almost all the functional systems of the human body. The disease is divided into type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Today, nutritional and dietary issues in diabetes mellitus of any kind is an extremely serious issue that is raised by each patient after receiving the diagnosis of the disease.
In general, adequate nutrition for diabetics should be followed every day, as without diet the person's health can deteriorate.
Tips for lowering blood sugar
The diet is essential for people with all types of diabetes, but dietary guidelines differ for type I and type II diabetes. In the latter case, dietary reduction of excess body weight may be the only therapeutic measure.
The type of diabetes mellitus is determined by the endocrinologist who treats you.
- In type 1 diabetes: adequate nutrition is a necessary basis for insulin therapy. If you do not pay attention to it, all efforts to lower blood sugar will be in vain: this indicator does not stabilize and this affects the condition of the vessels in all organs and systems.
- Type 2 diabetes: does not always require medication. First of all, the patient is recommended a diet that will help to reduce weight. With good dynamics, in this case, medications may not be necessary.
General tips to help reduce blood sugar:
- Reduce your intake of soft drinks, lemonade and juices. With regular consumption of sweetened drinks, the risk of developing diabetes increases by about 15%. Reduce the amount of cream and sweeteners when drinking tea and coffee.
- Try to choose sugar-free foods like unsweetened iced tea, yogurt or unsweetened oats. You can sweeten your food to your liking. You will probably add much less sugar to your food than the manufacturer.
- Replace your favorite sweets with healthier foods. Instead of ice cream, mash the frozen bananas and beat the mixture in an electric mixer for a great dessert. Instead of your favorite milk chocolate, it is better to eat a piece of dark chocolate.
It is especially important to follow a diet for mild diabetes, as it is practically the main treatment.
Differences in diet for type 1 and type 2 diabetes
For patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, a low calorie diet (25-30 kcal per 1 kg of body weight) is necessary, which avoids late complications of the disease. In this case, the diet is extremely important, it must be strictly observed. The main aspect to be observed when composing a diet is the balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Patients with type 2 diabetes receive a subcaloric diet (daily energy value of food 1600–1800 kcal). With this diet, patients should lose about 300-400 g of body weight per week. In the presence of a strong excess weight, the daily amount of calories is reduced according to the percentage of excess body weight to 15-17 kcal per 1 kg.
In each individual case, the doctor prescribes a special diet for the patient with diabetes mellitus, which must be followed to maintain a normal body.
When you start to eat well, follow these simple rules every day:
- It is necessary to eat food 5-6 times in small portions (every 2-3 hours) during the day.
- The proportion of proteins, carbohydrates and fats must be balanced.
- The amount of calories received from food must be equal to the patient's energy consumption.
- A person must receive adequate nutrition: certain vegetables and fruits, cereals, dietary meat and fish, natural juices without added sugar, dairy products, soups.
The diet of a diabetic patient should be rich in vitamins, so it is useful to introduce vitamin carriers in the diet: yeast yeast, beer yeast, rosehip broth, SPP, dietary supplements.
Nutritional rules for diabetes mellitus every day
The following foods can be eaten with diabetes:
- Bread - up to 200 grams per day, mainly black or special diabetic.
- Cook soups with vegetable stock, the use of weak meats and fish stock is allowed 1-2 times a week.
- Meat and poultry dishes. With diabetes mellitus, it is allowed to eat cooked beef, chicken and rabbit.
- Vegetables and herbs. It is recommended to consume potatoes, beets, carrots no more than 200 grams per day. But other vegetables (cabbage, lettuce, radish, cucumber, zucchini, tomatoes) and vegetables (except spicy ones) can be eaten almost unrestricted raw and cooked, and occasionally roasted.
- Cereals, vegetables and pasta should not be eaten frequently. If you decide to eat a plate of spaghetti, refuse bread and other foods and dishes high in carbohydrates that day.
- Eggs can be consumed a maximum of 2 pieces a day, added to other dishes, boiled in warm water or as an omelet.
- Fruits and berries of bittersweet and bittersweet varieties (Antonovka apples, oranges, lemons, cranberries, currants. . . ) - up to 200-300 grams per day.
- Milk - with a doctor's permission, kefir, yogurt (only 1-2 glasses per day), cottage cheese (50-200 grams per day) in natural or curd form, cheesecake and puddings.
- Cottage cheese is recommended for daily consumption, up to 100-200 grams per day in the natural form or in the form of curd, cheese cake, puddings, casseroles. Cottage cheese, as well as porridge and buckwheat, bran, rosehip improves fat metabolism and normalizes liver function, prevents fatty changes in the liver.
- Tea with milk, weak coffee, tomato juice, fruits and red fruit juices (total liquid with soup up to 5 glasses per day).
Plan your menu carefully every day and use only healthy foods that are necessary for you.
The diet of patients with diabetes should be thought of, first of all, people who have been diagnosed with this disease should refuse such products:
- Confectionery, chocolate, confectionery, pastry, jam, honey, ice cream and other sweets;
- Spicy, spicy, salty and smoked snacks and dishes, lamb and pork fat;
- Pepper, mustard;
- Alcoholic beverages;
- Grapes, bananas, raisins;
- Sugar is only allowed in small quantities with a doctor's permission.
All foods for diabetes should be consumed according to a schedule and, to control blood glucose, the daily menu must contain fiber.
Sample menu for the day
When following a type 2 diabetes diet, you can limit yourself to a simple menu, alternating the allowed foods.
Example # 1
- Breakfast - oatmeal, egg. Bread. Coffee.
- Snack - natural yogurt with berries.
- Lunch - vegetable soup, chicken breast with salad (beetroot, onion and olive oil) and stewed cabbage. Bread. Jam.
- Afternoon snack - low fat cottage cheese. Tea.
- Dinner - roast hake with sour cream, vegetable salad (cucumber, tomato, herbs or any other vegetable of the season) with vegetable oil. Bread. Cocoa.
- Second dinner (a few hours before bed) - plain yogurt, baked apple.
Example # 2
- Breakfast: cottage cheese 150 gr, buckwheat or oats 150 gr, black bread, unsweetened tea.
- Second breakfast: 250 ml sugar-free compote.
- Lunch: chicken broth 250 gr, lean cooked meat 75 gr, stewed cabbage - 100 gr, jam without sugar - 100 gr, bread, mineral water 250 ml.
- Afternoon snack - apple 1 pc.
- Dinner: boiled vegetables 150 gr, meatballs 100 gr, cabbage schnitzel - 200 gr, bread, sugar-free rosehips.
- Second supper: drinking yogurt - 250 ml.
Example # 3
- Breakfast: carrot and apple salad - 100 g, skim cheese with milk - 150 g Bread with bran - 50 g Unsweetened tea - 1 cup. Second breakfast: mineral water - 1 cup, apple.
- Lunch: vegetable soup with soy - 200 g, meat goulash - 150 g, vegetable caviar - 50 g. Rye bread - 50 g. Tea with xylitol - 1 cup.
- Afternoon snack: fruit salad - 100 g Unsweetened tea - 1 cup.
- Dinner: fish schnitzel - 150 g, corn porridge - 150 g Bread with bran - 50 g Unsweetened tea - 1 cup. Second supper: kefir - 1 cup.
Remember:a diabetic patient should not be hungry. You should eat at the same time, but if a slight hunger occurs between main meals, you should definitely smother it with a cup of tea or vegetables. But it must be just a light snack - overeating is dangerous for the diabetic.