Pancreatitis is a disease in which the pancreas inflames. It plays an important role in the digestive system - it regulates energy metabolism, synthesizes digestive juices and is responsible for breaking down carbohydrates.
Enzymes first enter the stomach and then the duodenum, where they begin to be activated. If the pancreas is inflamed, the enzymes begin to "work" at an early stage - that is, even before excretion. Damage arises - the gland begins to digest itself, which causes the death of some cells in the pancreas.
Pancreatitis can be caused by:
- infectious diseases not related to the digestive system - for example, seasonal ARVI;
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- unhealthy diet;
- alcohol abuse.
Pancreatitis can develop in several forms - acute, reactive and chronic. In the acute phase, the pancreas can completely or partially ignite, the reactive develops in the context of diseases of the digestive system - gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gallbladder or liver.
The chronic form can be in remission for a long time and, in most cases, the disease progresses slowly. In most cases, the inflammation reappears when the diet is changed.
The nature of the diet in pancreatic pancreatitis plays an important role - it is impossible to prevent an exacerbation without adhering to a special diet. What are these diets and what are the menu principles for pancreatitis?
Nutritional principles for pancreatic inflammation
The fundamental principle, which is established in the elaboration of a diet, in which the work of the pancreas is normalized, is to minimize the load on the digestive organ as much as possible.
For adults during an exacerbation, doctors give the following recommendations - "hunger, cold and rest". If the patient is in the hospital and pancreatitis is in an acute stage, he is advised to refuse food for 2 to 3 days, and useful substances - salts and liquids - enter the body by dripping. If you go hungry at home, it will be impossible to fully guarantee the water and electrolyte balance rate. You should and can drink, but only in small portions.
Even adults need to replenish their nutrient stores. Specially designed diets come to the rescue. The most "proven" of them is table 5.
Principles of this diet:
- creates the mildest conditions for the stomach and intestines - using mechanical and chemical discharge;
- eliminates pancreatic dysfunction;
- to prevent negative changes in liver tissue - fat infiltration;
- reduces gallbladder excitability.
The diet should be followed not only during the treatment of the disease, but also for another year after remission.
The main properties of the diet in the treatment of pancreatitis:
- In the daily daily menu, you must limit the number of products that contain substances that have an extractive effect - stimulating the production of pancreatic enzymes:
- refractory fats; purines;
- essential oils; cholesterol;
- coarse fiber; glucose
Restricted drink regime. You can drink as much as you want only when the urge to vomit completely decreases.
Don't be afraid of dietary restrictions in the first days after an attack - fasting during treatment is only useful.
Diet menu for pancreatitis
When composing a menu of several days with an exacerbation of pancreatitis, its characteristics must be taken into account immediately - the products must be rubbed. For example, if the meat is soufflé or meatballs, the potatoes are mashed potatoes and so on. . .
The menus are made up of the following products - an approximate list of them:
- baby food - can be used both in pots and in powder, which is then diluted in the liquid;
- mashed potatoes, cauliflower or white cabbage;
- Cottage cheese in puree.
The proportions of nutrients in the daily menu - fats - 50-70 g, proteins - 130-150 g, carbohydrates - 300-320 g.
Approximately 2 to 4 days after the exacerbation, the nausea subsides and the amount of fluid in the body must be restored. You need to drink about 1. 5 liters of water a day, in small sips, a glass every 6 hours. More "heavy" dishes are introduced to the diet gradually, after the elimination of pain, a name for each meal.
From now on - around the 4th - the menu includes the following dishes and products:
- kefir - only low in fat;
- chicken breast broth; protein omelet
- non-acidic wild fruit juices, which are diluted in half water;
- rosehip decoction;
- up to about 30 g of honey per day;
- dry brown bread;
- sugar-free biscuits or cookies;
- cooked pasta - you cannot use pasta or bunches, preference should be given to small vermicelli;
- porridge goes through a sieve, with pancreatitis, you can cook buckwheat, oats (some nutritionists allow you to eat semolina, but it must be cooked completely so that it does not swell in the stomach).
You can eat the following foods:
- lean meat - chicken breast, beef, rabbit;
- fish - cooked, but you can only use meat, fish soup and other soups in the fish stock;
- fruits - roasted or blanched;
- broth - secondary;
- vegetables in puree - broccoli, cauliflower, pumpkin.
The nature of the diet in pancreatitis depends on the patient's general condition.
How nutritional patterns change in pancreatitis
An approximate diet menu in the first days after an exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis is as follows:
- breakfast - half a portion of slimy oat soup and half a glass of still mineral water;
- snack - baked apples without skin and without sugar;
- lunch - mashed potatoes - also half a portion - with milk, without spices;
- afternoon snack - jam and crackling flour;
- supper - buckwheat porridge with weak tea, discolored milk;
- bedtime - a little milk diluted in water.
- breakfast - steamed protein omelet, chamomile broth;
- snack - roasted pear;
- lunch - barley soup, grated in water, toasted bread with jam;
- afternoon tea - milk soufflé;
- dinner - semolina porridge, dried fruit puree, weak tea;
- bedtime - half a glass of rosehip broth.
In addition, the diet may be slightly weakened - if the condition has returned to normal:
- breakfast - oatmeal with dried fruit, preferably with raisins, rosehip broth;
- snack - raw banana;
- lunch - steamed fish with mashed carrots, dried fruit compote;
- afternoon tea - cottage cheese seasoned with honey;
- dinner - rice porridge with milk with weak tea;
- bedtime - half a glass of diluted milk.
A diet for chronic pancreatitis, when the condition has returned to normal, may look like this - an example of a daily menu:
- breakfast - vegetable puree, a piece of meat souffle, juice diluted in water, weak tea;
- snack - protein omelet, steamed chicken breast cutlet, a slice of dry bread, kefir;
- lunch - small pasta in chicken broth, vegetables cooked with a piece of steamed fish, bread, dried fruit compote;
- afternoon tea - biscuits with red fruit jam, maybe some honey;
- dinner - steamed meatballs, rice porridge (or mashed potatoes), boiled vegetables, tea.
If you feel hungry before going to bed, you can eat a cookie, a sweet fruit, drink a glass of kefir.
A well-designed menu in the treatment of pancreatitis will help to bring the disease to remission quickly. The diet should be followed for one year after the last exacerbation.